E-Cigarette & Vaping
The harmful effects of tobacco smoke exposure are well documented. Yet research is still necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and there is a pressing need for new therapeutic agents to treat patients. Scientific evidence is also needed to understand the risks associated with vapour exposure from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in order to guide the decision-making process for the use of these nicotine delivery devices. The rapid adoption of e-cigarettes, especially amongst the youth, has spurred a rush to fill the knowledge gap pertaining to the safety profile for the users and the environment. Learn more from an expert at the forefront of e-cigarette research.
For more information on our pulmonary equipment for classic cigarette and cannabis exposure studies, please feel free to visit our Tobacco and Cannabis Studies page.
VERSATILE, PROGRAMMABLE, REPRODUCIBLE
As a broad overview, an Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) unit is a battery-powered device which heats up a metal resistive coil to produce an inhalable vapour of an e-liquid, without tobacco combustion. This e-liquid typically consists of Propylene Glycol (PG) and Vegetable Glycerin (VG) along with optional nicotine or flavourings. Originally designed to provide a perceived safer alternative and cessation tool for cigarette addition, the clinical risks associated with ENDS use, effectiveness for smoking cessation and overall toxicity are highly controversial.
Since studies assessing the impact of smoke are typically conducted over a prolonged time period, it is therefore important to consistently and reproducibly introduce the same smoke composition for each experimental session. To best create these translatable pre-clinical animal models, it is necessary to standardize factors such as puff frequencies and topographies, exposure concentrations, e-liquid composition and device generation/brand to ensure consistent E-cigarette Vapour Deposition. Using the inExpose system, researchers create accurate and reproducible models of smoke exposure using automated generation of vapour along with customizable puffing volumes and frequencies.
There are two different e-cigarette accessories for the inExpose system, MOD-e-cigarettes and Pod style e-cigarettes, both capable of customizable puffing profiles.
The recent publication by Noël et al. entitled Generation of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol by a Third-Generation Machine-Vaping Device: Application to Toxicological Studies, is a noteworthy example to accelerate and harmonize e-cig research findings through the use of reproducible exposure environments.
- Variations in coil temperature/power and e-liquid constituents change size and lung deposition of particles emitted by an electronic cigarette. Lechasseur, A., et al. (2019).Physiological Reports, 7(10): Doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14093
- Inhalation of JUUL Aerosols and Flavor Choice Adversely Affects Inflammatory and Metabolic States.Crotty, A, et al. (2019). ATS, Effects of E-cigarettes and their Components on Respiratory Dysfunction, Inflammation and Repair, b107
- Chronic effects of vaping with and without nicotine on arterial stiffness in rats. Hare, L.A., et al. (2019). FASEB, 33(1): lb512
- Inflammatory and Oxidative Responses Induced by Exposure to Commonly Used e-Cigarette Flavouring Chemicals and Flavoured e-Liquids without Nicotine. Muthumalage, T., et al. (2018). Frontiers in Physiology, 11:org/10/3389/fphys.2017.01130
- E-cigarette flavored pods induce inflammation, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and DNA damage in lung epithelial cells and monocytes. Muthumalage, T., Lamb, T., Friedman, M.R., & Rahman, I. (2019). Scientific Reports,9:10935
- A computerized exposure system for animal models to optimize nicotine delivery into the brain through inhalation of electronic cigarette vapors or cigarette smoke. Alasmari, F., et al. (2018). Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 26(5), 622–628.
- Dysregulated repair and inflammatory responses by e‐cigarette‐derived inhaled nicotine and humectant propylene glycol in a sex‐dependent manner in mouse lung. Wang, Q., et al. (2019). FASEV Bio Advances, 1(10): 609-623
- The Effect of Electronic-Cigarette Vaping on Cardiac Function and Angiogenesis in Mice. Shi, H., et al. (2019). Scientific Reports, 9(1),
- Chronic Inhalation of E-Cigarette Vapor Containing Nicotine Disrupts Airway Barrier Function and Induces Systemic Inflammation and Multi-Organ Fibrosis in Mice. Crotty Alexander LE., et al. (2018). Am J Physiol Integr Comp Physiol. ajpregu.00270.
- Inflammatory and oxidative responses induced by exposure to commonly used e-cigarette flavoring chemicals and flavored e-liquids without nicotine. Muthumalage, T., et al. (2018). Frontiers in Physiology, 8, doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.01130
- Effects of Chronic Inhalation of Electronic Cigarette Vapor Containing Nicotine on Neurotransmitters in the Frontal Cortex and Striatum of C57BL/6 Mice. Alasmari, F., et al. (2019). Frontiers in Pharmacology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00885
QUANTITATIVE, INTEGRATIVE AND TRANSLATIONAL OUTCOMES
The structural and inflammatory impact of e-cigarette smoke exposure on the respiratory system can be characterized by evaluating detailed changes in lung function. The flexiVent permits a detailed lung function assessment, including lung compliance, mechanical properties of the parenchyma, pressure volume loops, total lung volumes along with clinically-translatable forced expired volumes & capacities (FEV/FVC).
- Dysregulation in the Inflammatory Response in the Lung Due to Chronic Inhalation of JUUL and Mod E-cigarette Vapor. Moshensky, A., et al. (2020). Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020;201:A1228
- Chronic Inhalation of E-Cigarette Vapor from JUUL and Mod Devices Alters Lung Compliance and Airway Resistance but Does Not Alter Heart Rate, Heart Rate Variability or Blood Pressure. Shin, J., et al. (2020). Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020;201:A7687
- In utero exposures to electronic-cigarette aerosols impair the Wnt signaling during mouse lung development. Noel, A., et al. (2020). Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 318(4): 705-722
- The Effect of Flavored E-cigarettes on Murine Allergic Airways Disease. Chapman, D.F., et al. (2019). Scientific Reports, 9, 13671.
- Chronic Inhalation of Unflavored Nicotine and No-Nicotine Containing Electronic Cigarette Vapor Leads to Impaired Lung Function. Chun, V. e al. (2018). American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (2018);197:A4452
- Chronic Inhalation of Electronic (E)-Cigarette Vapor Increases Susceptibility to Acute Lung Injury. Moshensky, A., et al. (2020). American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (2020);201:A3568
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