Air Pollutants & Irritants
Harmful particulates, biological materials, gaseous exhaust, as well as other environmental pollutants may enter the body via the lungs through inhalation exposure.
Artificially or naturally occurring environmental pollutants have been associated with increasing incidences of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Pollutant deposition along the inhalation pathway may cause widespread effects of varying severity, including local airway inflammation to large scale structural damages. Further, introduction of the pollutants into the blood stream may result in multiple systemic effects, promoting cardiovascular or neurological diseases.
REPRODUCIBLE EXPOSURE, PRECISE DELIVERY
The inExpose has been specifically designed for consistent, precise delivery of a pollutant concentration by controlling air flow rates. This is done through automated exposure profiles, which also help to reduce user error and minimize outcome variability among subjects, study, and research groups. The inExpose operates under various configurations and protocols to ensure that the subjects receive repeatable yet consistent pollutant exposures throughout experimentation.
- Augmentation of arginase 1 expression by exposure to air pollution exacerbates the airways hyperresponsiveness in murine models of asthma. – North et al. ” Respiratory research 12.1 (2011): 19-19.
- Environmentally persistent free radicals decrease cardiac function and increase pulmonary artery pressure. – Mahne et al. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 303.9 (2012): H1135-H1142.
- Toxicity evaluation of exposure to an atmospheric mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls by nose-only and whole-body inhalation regimens.- Hu et al. Environmental science & technology 49.19 (2015): 11875-11883.
DETAILED OUTCOMES TO ISOLATE POLLUTANT RESPONSE
The flexiVent captures crucial changes in mechanical properties of the conducting airways, terminal airways and parenchyma in response to environmental pollutants. The flexiVent is a comprehensive tool allowing an integrated assessment of various disease determinants (e.g. extent and pattern of induced damage) on lung function decline.
- Diesel exhaust particulates exacerbate asthma-like inflammation by increasing CXC chemokines. – Kim et al. The American journal of pathology 179.6 (2011): 2730-2739.
- Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of size-fractionated airborne particulate matter. – Amatullah et al. Inhalation toxicology 24.3 (2012): 161-171.
CONSCIOUS MEASUREMENTS, SPONTANEOUS BREATHING
The induced changes in lung parenchyma resulting from pollutants and air born irritants are likely to result in impaired breathing patterns, which can be captured repeatedly in conscious spontaneously breathing subjects using a whole body plethysmograph.
- Dobutamine “stress” test and latent cardiac susceptibility to inhaled diesel exhaust in normal and hypertensive rats. – Hazari et al. Environmental health perspectives 120.8 (2012): 1088.
- Acrolein inhalation alters arterial blood gases and triggers carotid body-mediated cardiovascular responses in hypertensive rats. – Perez et al. Inhalation toxicology 27.1 (2015): 54-63.