Countermeasures is a field of study that integrates cutting-edge research with the latest technological advances in science and medicine for a more rapid and effective response during chemical emergencies. When studying chemical threats, it is important to understand the effect of the agent itself but also the potential effects of any therapeutic countermeasure. The respiratory system, in particular, is often affected due to the inhaled nature of these threats.
ADVANCED LUNG FUNCTION MEASUREMENTS
The flexiVent has been used in a wide range of applications focused on vesicant induced lung injury (chlorine, sarin, mustard, etc.). Its unique ability to measure central vs. peripheral airways, combined with delivered dose estimators and automated dose-response feature permit unique and novel insights into inflammatory responses and evolution of lung injury throughout the progression of an exposure.
- A Novel Therapeutic For Rescue Treatment Following Toxic Gas Lung Injury. – McGovern et al. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Mar 1;50(5):602-8. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.12.001.
- Functional and inflammatory alterations in the lung following exposure of rats to nitrogen mustard. Sunil VR et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011 Jan 1;250(1):10-8. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2010.09.016.
- Inhalation of the nerve gas sarin impairs ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in rats. – Zhuang et al. Toxicol Appl. 2008 Nov 1;232(3):440. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2008.07.016.
CONSCIOUS, SPONTANEOUS BREATHING
Whole body plethysmography permits a continuous and non-invasive assessment of breathing patterns in conscious subjects. Measurements of respiratory rate, estimated tidal volume, and minute ventilation provide valuable insights into the subject’s conscious response to a vesicant induced lung injury.
- Validity of methods to predict the respiratory sensitizing potential of chemicals: A study with a piperidinyl chlorotriazine derivative that caused an outbreak of occupational asthma. -Vanoirbeek et al. Toxicol Sci. 2003 Dec;76(2):338-46.
- Percutaneous exposure to the nerve agent VX: Efficacy of combined atropine, obidoxime and diazepam treatment. – Joosen et al. Chem Biol Interact. 2010 Oct 6;188(1):255-63. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2010.06.010.
AUTOMATED, REPRODUCIBLE EXPOSURE
The inExpose is a compact and customizable inhalation exposure system, which provides a reproducible way of exposing animals to a test atmosphere, creating relevant and practical animal models. It is specifically designed for targeted aerosol delivery by controlling air flow rates and aerosol generation devices. The inExpose’s ability to minimize the ingestion with the nose-only tower, or minimize stress using the whole body chamber, provides control over the experimental conditions beyond the typical inhalant parameters and offers a unique testing environment for therapeutics.
- Postinfection A77-1726 treatment improves cardiopulmonary function in H1N1 influenza-infected mice. – Aeffner et al. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012 Oct;47(4):543-51. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2012-0112OC.
- Efficacy of aerosolized celecoxib encapsulated nanostructured lipid carrier in non-small cell lung cancer in combination with docetaxel. – Patel et al. Pharm Res. 2013 May;30(5):1435-46. doi: 10.1007/s11095-013-0984-9.