Cardiopulmonary research is a two-step approach in investigating cardio and pulmonary outcomes in the body. Heart failure occurs when the heart muscle is weakened and cannot pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs. When the left ventricle is weakened, pressure increases in the lung vasculature allowing fluid to collect (pulmonary edema). When the right ventricle is weakened, it is often a result of pulmonary hypertension, where the pulmonary arteries are narrowed or damaged. This makes it harder for blood to flow through the lungs and forces the right ventricle to work harder, eventually weakening the muscle.

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countermeasures effects on respiratory system


In preclinical cardiopulmonary research, the challenge is often to link structural or physical changes (e.g. narrowing of pathways or build of up edema) to altered lung function measurements, such as resistance, compliance or spirometry outcomes. The flexiVent is a comprehensive tool allowing an integrated assessment of various disease determinants (e.g. extent and pattern of induced damage) on lung function decline. It measures the mechanical properties of the lungs with high sensitivity and reproducibility, providing clinically relevant outcomes.

countermeasures effects on respiratory system


Administration of drugs or novel therapeutic carriers through the lung provides quick and effective access to the cardiopulmonary system. The large surface area and high vascularization of the lung allows delivery of substances either locally or systemically, via the blood. The inExpose, a compact precision inhalation exposure system, offers computer control to ensure an automated, precise, and repeatable exposures to evaluate therapeutic candidates or provide interventions to generate animal models. Due to its small internal volumes, exposure ramp-up times are reduced which minimizes the need for large quantities of material (aerosol/smoke).


Whole-body plethysmography can be an easy tool for screening subjects quickly for preliminary respiratory data with the option of delivering inhaled therapeutics. Ventilatory parameters (e.g. breathing frequency, tidal volume, peak inspiratory or expiratory flows) can be measured noninvasively in conscious animals providing indicators of pulmonary changes in various cardiopulmonary models.

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